Seizures are caused by abnormal firing of electrical impulses by the neurons of the brain. There are several different types of seizures, some can cause of loss of consciousness while others cause only abnormal movements of the body. Epilepsy is a syndrome of repeated seizures that are not caused by another medical condition. The type of seizure a person experiences is related to the part of the brain where the seizure, or the abnormal impulses, began.
The treatment for seizures begins with medications and a wide variety of anticonvulsants are available. For patients who do not experience adequate seizure control with medications, surgery may be an option if your neurologist is able to identify the particular area of the brain that is generating the seizure activity. A neurosurgeon can either remove, the specific area causing the seizures and typically does this without causing any major impairments. Another surgical treatment options involves implantation of a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS). A vagal nerve stimulator is a small device that prevents seizures by sending electrical impulses to the brain by means of the vagus nerve, a nerve that passes through the upper chest. Seizures can often be difficult to control and may require a combination of treatment options or medications to achieve good results.